Timeline of Epidemic

Click on a date below to go to that year of the AIDS epidemic:

See also the Kaiser Family Foundation's Timeline of Key Milestones interactive timeline.


Before 1955
  • HIV-1 was likely transferred to humans before 1955 from a subspecies of chimpanzees infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

1959
  • Earliest case of HIV confirmed. HIV-1 was found in blood samples of an African man who died in 1959.

1969
  • First known case of HIV in the U.S., a teen prostitute with Kaposi's Sarcoma and HIV, dies.

1979
  • In June 1979, doctors in Haiti diagnose 12 cases of Kaposi's Sarcoma, a rare skin cancer.

1980
  • Dr. Michael Gottlieb at UCLA sees a case of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and discovers that the patient's blood lacks T-helper cells, which are a part of the immune system.
  • In the U.S., 31 deaths have occurred that will later be found to be HIV-related.

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1981
  • Dr. Alvin Friedman-Kien in New York notices a rare cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, in two young gay men and speaks to physicians at UCSF who have seen a similar case.
  • Dr. Michael Gottlieb of the University of California, Los Angeles publishes articles in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly that report reviewing cases of otherwise healthy young gay patients experiencing fungal infections and PCP. Doctors in Paris and Belgium notice similar symptoms among their patients.
  • In May, a New York Times article announces "Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals."
  • In June, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports the first case of the illness that will later be known as AIDS. By October, the CDC declares the new disease an epidemic.
  • Eighty men gather in New York writer Larry Kramer's apartment to address the "gay cancer" and to raise money for research.  This informal meeting provides the foundation for what will soon become Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC).
  • 152 cases have been reported in the U.S.; 128 are dead.

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1982
  • Nathan Fain, Larry Kramer, Larry Mass, Paul Popham, Paul Rapoport, and Edmund White officially establish Gay Men's Health Crisis in New York City.
  • The CDC links the new disease to blood and estimates that tens of thousands of people will be affected.
  • In July, the CDC publishes a notice in the MMWR of 34 cases of this new disease in Haiti.
  • In September, "GRID" is officially renamed by the CDC as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, or "AIDS" at the suggestion of Dr. Bruce Voeller, a Los Angeles researcher. Male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, Haitian origin and Hemophilia A are identified as significant risk factors.
  • At a conference in Los Angeles, Rep. Henry Waxman begins the first investigation of the new disease.
  • In October of 1982, APLA's four founders, Nancy Cole Sawaya, Matt Redman, Ervin Munro and Max Drew meet at an emergency meeting at the Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Community Services Center to discuss GRID. Their subsequent action eventually forms AIDS Project Los Angeles (APLA) and its first service, a hotline housed in a closet at the Gay and Lesbian Community Service Center.
  • In December, APLA hosts a Christmas benefit that raises $7,000. That money becomes the seed money for the new organization.
  • 1,300 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S; 460 are dead.

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1983
  • In January, the CDC, in a meeting with blood industry executives, public health officials, and gay and hemophiliac activists, warns blood banks of a possible problem with the blood supply. Screening guidelines are published in March, however, additional safeguards for the blood supply are not enacted for two more years.
  • The Denver Principles articulate the ethos of the people with AIDS (PWA) self-empowerment movement.
  • The AIDS virus sweeps through Africa marking the beginning of the long struggle against AIDS in developing countries.
  • First AIDS discrimination trial is held in the U.S.
  • The virus that causes AIDS is isolated by Dr. Francoise Barre Sinoussi at the Pasteur Institute (France) and named LAV.
  • The first Board of Directors of APLA is elected on January 14.
  • In early 1983, APLA moves into a converted motel at 937 Cole St. in Hollywood. As time goes by and the need for services increase, APLA moves into several of the converted motel's rooms.
  • The APLA Education Division prints its first informational brochure answering basic questions about AIDS in February.
  • Safer sex guidelines are proposed by Margaret Heckler, President Reagan's secretary of health and human services.
  • On May 19, The New England Journal of Medicine reports that researchers have found that AIDS may be transmitted from males to females.
  • In May, APLA sponsors a candlelight march in Westwood attended by 5,000 people. This is the beginning of the annual International AIDS Candlelight Memorial, aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness about AIDS in communities around the world.
  • The Buddy Program becomes APLA's first direct client service in late 1983.
  • By December, APLA has five full-time staff.
  • APLA starts with five clients; by the end of 1983 APLA has 100 clients.
  • 4,156 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S.; 1,503 are dead.

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1984
  • Dr. Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute develops a blood test to screen for HIV infection, and any signs of the new disease, called the ELISA test. The test is approved by the FDA in 1985.
  • 100,000 lesbians and gays march at the Democratic National Convention to demand an increase in federal AIDS spending.
  • Gay men are attacked in media for infecting "innocent victims."
  • In February, APLA hosts a benefit concert at Studio One starring Joan Rivers that raises $45,000.
  • New evidence is reported that AIDS can be spread heterosexually and transmitted even before a person shows outward signs of the disease.
  • Dr. Robert Gallo and Dr. Luc Montagner announce they have co-discovered the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS is identified as being caused by a human retrovirus named HTLV-III. The different modes of HIV transmission are identified.
  • Margaret Heckler, U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, announces that the cause of AIDS has been found and promises "a vaccine will be ready for testing within two years."
  • Gaetan Dugas, a French flight attendant whom author Randy Shilts ( And The Band Played On ) identified as "patient zero" responsible for introducing the epidemic to the U.S., dies.
  • APLA plays a leadership role in the founding of AIDS Action Council, an organization established to lobby the federal government.
  • APLA opens Mansfield House, a three-bedroom hospice in Hollywood. The house is eventually replaced by an entire housing program.
  • Dr. Merv Silverman, director of San Francisco's Department of Public Health, demands the city's bathhouses be closed.
  • By April, APLA has raised $123,000 in private donations and $85,000 in government grants. By December, APLA has 15 full-time staff and 200 clients.
  • In July, the 1984 Democratic National Convention is held at the Moscone Center in San Francisco.
  • 9,920 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S.; 3,498 people have died.

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1985
  • National poll shows 72 percent of Americans favor mandatory testing, 51 percent favor quarantine and 15 percent favor tattoos for those infected with HIV.
  • All blood and plasma collection centers begin screening the country's blood supply for HIV antibodies.
  • Effort in California Legislature to guarantee confidentiality of HIV testing in California; the concept is adopted nationwide.
  • The first International Conference on AIDS is held in Atlanta in April and is attended by over 2,000 people. The second International AIDS Candlelight Memorial is held in 40 cities on four continents, the first global AIDS event.
  • The American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) is co-founded in Los Angeles by Dr. Mathilde Krim and Dr. Michael Gottlieb.
  • The first AIDS-related play, The Normal Heart by Larry Kramer, opens in New York.
  • In January, APLA's Education Division first publishes Living with AIDS: A Self-Care Manual, and launches "L.A. Cares," APLA's first major education campaign. L.A. Cares features billboards, brochures such as Mother's Handy Sex Guide and print and TV PSAs entitled "Fight the Fear with the Facts."
  • Second International AIDS Candlelight Memorial is held in 40 cities on four continents - the first global AIDS event.
  • The name of HTLV-III, the AIDS virus, is changed to HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
  • In the spring, APLA moves from the Cole St. location to larger quarters at 7362 Santa Monica Blvd. in West Hollywood. The Greene/LeBaron Dental Clinic is opened in March. The Dental Clinic is housed in a trailer in West Hollywood Park on San Vicente Ave.
  • On July 25, Rock Hudson discloses that he has AIDS resulting in huge numbers of people to call the APLA hotline and an influx of new clients and volunteers.
  • APLA holds the world's first AIDS Walk on July 28. Expecting to raise $100,000, event organizers are thrilled when the event actually raises $673,000.
  • In August, APLA coordinates testimony to the L.A. City Council on discrimination against people with AIDS. Los Angeles becomes the first city in the nation to bar such discrimination.
  • In August, 14-year-old Ryan White, diagnosed with AIDS at 13, is barred from attending his public school in Indiana. For the remaining four and a half years of his life he speaks out against AIDS-related discrimination.
  • On September 19, APLA honors Betty Ford at the first Commitment to Life Awards and raises over $1.3 million.
  • On October 2, Rock Hudson dies from AIDS.
  • An Early Frost premieres on November 11, 1985. It is the first American made-for-television movie about AIDS.
  • In 1985 alone, APLA volunteers contribute more than 50,000 hours.
  • AIDS cases have now been reported in every populated continent in the world. 20,470 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S.; 8,161 are dead.

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1986
  • In May, Surgeon General Koop releases his report calling for AIDS education for children of all ages and urges widespread use of condoms.
  • The second International Conference on AIDS is held in Paris, France, during which Dr. H. Mahler, director of WHO, states that as many as 10 million people worldwide could already be infected with HIV.
  • In October, the first exhaustive report on the national AIDS effort is issued by the Institute of Medicine. Citing poor federal leadership and use of resources, the report calls for a National Commission on HIV infection and AIDS.
  • The CDC, in its Morbidity Weekly Report, proposed that the incidence rate for blacks and Hispanics is three times as high as that of whites.
  • Jon Parker, a former drug addict, begins the first needle exchange in the U.S. in New Haven, Connecticut, to fight the spread of HIV among injection drug users.
  • APLA forms its Public Policy Department. APLA's Necessities of Life Food Bank is opened on November 1. It is housed on Vine St, near Melrose Ave.
  • The Reagan administration advises the public not to panic since AIDS is confined to gay men and IV drug users.
  • In the fall, APLA moves from Santa Monica Blvd. in West Hollywood to Romaine Street, with administrative offices on Wilshire.
  • 37,061 AIDS cases have been reported in the U.S.; 16,301 are dead.

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1987
  • In February, the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) is founded to end the AIDS crisis through direct, confrontational political action.
  • The first two AIDS vaccine clinical trials, made by Microgenesis and Bristol-Myers, are approved.
  • On March 19, Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir®), the first drug approved to fight HIV itself, is marketed for use by people with AIDS. The cost of a year's supply, $10,000, makes AZT the most expensive drug in history.
  • On April 29, the FDA approves the first Western blot blood test kit, a confirmatory test to the ELISA.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) launches its Global Program on AIDS.
  • The American Medical Association rules that doctors are obligated to provide treatment for people with AIDS.
  • The FDA revises its strategy for the regulation of condoms by strengthening its inspection of condom manufacturers and repackers, strengthening its sampling and testing of domestic and imported condoms in commercial distribution and providing guidance on labeling of condoms for the prevention of AIDS.
  • President Reagan uses the word "AIDS" for the first time in a public appearance while addressing the College of Physicians in Philadelphia in April, six years after the epidemic began.
  • In August, a family in Arcadia, Florida, is burned out of their home by arsonists seeking to keep the family’s AIDS-afflicted sons out of the local school system. The three young brothers, all hemophiliacs infected through blood transfusions, had been banned from school in 1986. The crime occurred four days after they returned to school.
  • In October, North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms, "disgusted" by GMHC's Safer Sex Comix, amends a federal appropriations bill to prevent funding of AIDS education efforts that "encourage or promote homosexual sexual activity." The action is henceforth known as the "no promo homo" rule.
  • Vice President George Bush calls for mandatory HIV testing.
  • A University of Miami study of 45 families in which one member has AIDS demonstrates that HIV is not transmitted by casual contact.
  • ACT UP holds mass civil disobedience on Wall Street. After the ACT UP demonstration, the FDA announces a two year shortening in the drug approval process.
  • The third International Conference on AIDS is held in Washington, DC.
  • Delta Airlines attempts to bar people with AIDS (PWAs), backing down only after threat of a national boycott.
  • The U.S. shuts its doors to HIV-infected immigrants and travelers.
  • The CDC expands the definition of AIDS to include more diseases, such as wasting syndrome and dementia.
  • The AIDS Memorial Quilt is started in San Francisco and later displayed for the first time on the National Mall in Washington, DC.
  • And the Band Played On, a history of the epidemic, by Randy Shilts is published.
  • Liberace and Broadway director Michael Bennett die from AIDS.
  • The Housing Department is established as a core element of APLA's Client Services Division.
  • The number of calls received by the APLA Education and Training hotline increases 6 times from when it was first administered, from 1,931 to 6,602.
  • 59,572 AIDS cases have been reported in the U.S.; 27,909 are dead.
  • The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC) is founded.

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1988
  • In New York City, new AIDS cases from shared needles exceed the number of sexually transmitted new cases. The majority of new AIDS cases are among African Americans. People of color now account for more than two-thirds of total new cases.
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) establish an Office of AIDS Research. Dr. Anthony Fauci is named the acting director.
  • Lyndon LaRouche places a quarantine initiative on the California ballot. For the second time, it is defeated. Rep. William Dannemeyer (R-Fullerton) puts a mandatory AIDS testing initiative on California ballot. The initiative is also defeated.
  • Neither Democratic nor Republican nominees address AIDS in presidential campaign.
  • U.S. bans discrimination against federal workers with HIV.
  • Locally, APLA sponsors legislation for residential care and mental health. Both passed the State Assembly.
  • On July 1, the American Medical Association urges doctors to break confidentiality and warn sexual partners of people being treated for AIDS.
  • U.S. mails 107 million copies of Understanding AIDS, a booklet by Surgeon General C. Everett Koop.
  • The FDA allows importation of unapproved treatment for personal use by people with AIDS.
  • Human trials of anti-HIV vaccine begin.
  • The International AIDS Society (IAS) is founded as a non-profit organization in connection with the IV International AIDS Conference in Stockholm, primarily to decide on future venues of the series of International AIDS Conferences and to serve as a network for those working with HIV/AIDS.
  • The fourth International Conference on AIDS is held in Stockholm.
  • Press reports and new statistics draw attention to the fact that women are one of the fastest growing groups in the epidemic.
  • The FDA implements new regulations designed to make promising therapies available sooner for patients with life-threatening and severely debilitating diseases.
  • In October, ACT UP members stage a massive demonstration at the FDA with almost 1,000 protesters. Shortly after, The FDA changed their procedures to allow effective drugs that are still in clinical trial to circulate more quickly to the public, a process also known as “fast- tracking.”
  • On November 22, the FDA approves the first drug to treat Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • On December 1st, the WHO Global Program on AIDS organizes the first World AIDS Day.
  • 89,864 AIDS cases have been reported in the U.S.; 46,134 are dead.

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1989
  • The first APLA Dance-A-Thon is held at the Shrine Auditorium.
  • APLA closes its administrative offices on Wilshire Blvd. and moves into the Romaine St. location.
  • On January 9, New York City police officers are stationed outside an AIDS home for toddlers after two bomb threats are phoned in.
  • The fifth annual International AIDS Conference ("The Scientific and Social Challenge of AIDS") is held in Montreal.
  • In August, a federal study indicates that AZT slows the progression of HIV infection in those who are asymptomatic or who have few symptoms.
  • In September, under pressure from the AIDS community, Zidovudine (AZT) manufacturer Burroughs Wellcome lowers the price of the drug by 20 percent.
  • In October, the FDA authorizes pre-approval distribution of AZT for treatment of pediatric HIV cases.
  • The Helms Amendment bars people with HIV from entering the U.S. resulting in civil disobedience at the White House. Directors of dozens of AIDS organizations are arrested.
  • On December 1, world renowned choreographer, Alvin Ailey, dies of AIDS, and the Visual AIDS Group organizes the second annual Aids Awareness by joining 600 art institutions in a “Day without Art.”
  • 115,786 AIDS cases have been reported in the U.S.; 70,313 are dead.

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1990
  • APLA created a public policy staff position in Sacramento to strengthen the agency's presence in the capitol.
  • APLA leases offices on Sunset Blvd. in the CNN building to house the administrative offices.
  • Elton John and Michael Jackson bring worldwide attention to Ryan White, the Indiana teenager who dies of AIDS at the age of 18 in April.
  • In May, the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act is passed. Though the bill authorizes $881 million in emergency relief to 16 cities devastated by the epidemic, Congress appropriates less than $350 million.
  • In May, Longtime Companion hits theaters. It is one of the first films to put a human face on the epidemic.
  • In July, President Bush signs the Americans with Disabilities Act, passed by Congress to protect people with disabilities, including people with HIV infection, from discrimination.
  • The sixth International AIDS Conference ("AIDS in the Nineties: From Science to Policy") is held in San Francisco. APLA participates in the AIDS Unity March at the Conference, which brings 20,000 scientists and activists together for a show of solidarity.
  • AEGIS.com, an online database of HIV/AIDS information, is founded by Sister Mary Elizabeth and the Sisters of St. Elizabeth of Hungary.
  • President and Mrs. Bush participate in International Candlelight Memorial and Mobilization.
  • Ronald Reagan apologizes for his neglect of the epidemic while he was president.
  • Investigations reveal that 85 percent of Americans who require early treatment for HIV are not receiving it.
  • American AIDS deaths pass the 100,000 mark. Nearly twice as many Americans have now died from AIDS as died in the Vietnam War. 161,073 AIDS cases have been reported in the U.S.; 100,813 are dead.

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1991
  • On January 27, APLA hosts Commitment to Life VII honoring Jeffrey Katzenberg and Hillary Rodham Clinton, which becomes the highest grossing AIDS fundraiser ever, raising $4.3 million.
  • APLA launched the HIV testing ad campaign AIDS: What You Don't Know Can Hurt You in both English and Spanish.
  • The Red Ribbon Campaign is launched. Jeremy Irons was the first to sport one, at the 1991 Tony Awards. Frank Moore II, a Manhattan painter and Board member of Visual AIDS, was instrumental in launching the red ribbon campaign, which became an international symbol of AIDS awareness. Mr. Moore died in 2002 at the age of 48 of AIDS-related illness.
  • Freddie Mercury, lead singer of the rock band Queen, dies from AIDS.
  • Secretary of Health Louis Sullivan recommends an end to the travel and immigration ban on people with HIV; Senator Helms vigorously opposes. 50,000 letters are received in support of Sullivan's proposed revision. However, the Bush Administration overrules the proposed revision and people with HIV continue to be denied entry into the U.S.
  • Nobel Peace Prize winner Archbishop Desmond Tutu and the heads of state of Ireland, New Zealand and Canada, amongst others, participate in the International AIDS Candlelight Memorial and Mobilization.
  • The seventh International AIDS Conference ("Science Challenging AIDS") is held in Florence, Italy.
  • In June, a letter from Kimberly Bergalis, who was apparently infected with HIV by her dentist, to the American Medical Association is made public. The letter requests the mandatory testing of health care workers for HIV. Efforts by Sen. Jesse Helms and Rep. William Dannemeyer to pass legislation inspired by this letter are blocked by opposition from most AIDS and health groups.
  • In October, the FDA approves Didanosine (ddI, Videx®) for marketing. ddI is only the second antiviral drug approved.
  • In November, former L. A. Laker Earvin "Magic" Johnson, three-times voted the NBA's most valuable player, announces that he has tested positive for HIV during a routine physical exam, and is retiring from pro basketball.
  • CDC cuts funding for 23 of 27 national programs of AIDS prevention in minority communities.
  • FOX television becomes the first broadcast TV network in this country to air a paid condom commercial. A decade later, three of the six major networks (CBS, FOX and NBC) officially allow condom advertising at the network level, although all three limit the times at which such ads can run, and at least one (FOX) prohibits them from focusing on pregnancy prevention. The three other broadcast networks (ABC, UPN and The WB) all have policies in place prohibiting condom advertising at the network level.
  • The Greene/Le Barron Dental Treatment Center relocates, expanding from two treatment rooms to five.
  • 206,392 AIDS cases have been reported in the U.S.; 132,233 are dead. Tuberculosis resurfaces in the U.S.

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1992
  • APLA's Education Division publishes a comic book about AIDS aimed at adolescents, named Sex on Earth and Other Planets .
  • In 1992, the hotline handles more than 70,000 calls.
  • On February 4, the International Olympic Committee rules that athletes with HIV are eligible to compete.
  • In June, the FDA approves Zalcitabine (ddC, Hivid®) for use in combination with Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir®).
  • In August, in protest of U.S. immigration policies that bar entrance to people with HIV, Harvard University holds the Eighth International Conference ("A World United Against AIDS") in Amsterdam.
  • 49 cases of "AIDS" without HIV infection are reported at the VIIIth International AIDS Conference. Termed ICTL (idiopathic CD4 + T lymphocytopenia), the World Health Organization later determines this immune suppression is not the result of one transmissible agent but probably has many causes.
  • Ninth Annual International AIDS Candlelight Memorial and Mobilization is held in 45 nations. Russia, Romania and Bulgaria participate.
  • The first clinical trial of multiple drug therapy is held.
  • Both major political party conventions feature moving speeches from people with AIDS, and in November, Bill Clinton is elected as the 42nd President of the United States. His campaign promises include full funding of the Ryan White CARE Act, targeted and honest HIV prevention, an increase in the research budget, an end to discrimination against HIV-positive immigrants and the appointment of a national AIDS "czar."
  • In August, AIDS activists are cordoned off and beaten by police as they protest outside the Republican National Convention. Inside, Mary Fisher, a woman living with AIDS, addresses the delegates.
  • On October 5, the FDA made Stavudine (d4T, Zerit®) the first drug available for expanded investigational use under the parallel track policy.
  • 242,000 AIDS cases are reported in the U.S.; 160,000 are dead.

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1993
  • By 1993, APLA has provided services to more than 11,500 clients.
  • President Clinton establishes the White House Office of National AIDS Policy (ONAP).
  • On January 1, the first reports of resistance to Zidovudine (AZT) in AIDS patients occur.
  • In January, the CDC expands the definition of AIDS to include new conditions, including invasive cervical cancer, T-cell counts of less than 200, pulmonary TB and recurrent bacterial infections. New AIDS diagnoses are expected to increase by as much as 100 percent as a result of the change.
  • In January, AIDS advocates draft bill to reorganize the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and create the new Office of AIDS Research designed to streamline and supervise the many federal AIDS research efforts.
  • In February, Arthur Ashe, former tennis great, dies of AIDS less than a year after revealing he is HIV-infected.
  • In May, Congress passes the NIH reauthorization bill, but appends a provision excluding immigrants with HIV. President Clinton, in spite of his campaign promises, mounts no effective opposition.
  • On May 7, the FDA approves the Reality Female condom which offers women a barrier product to protect themselves without relying on the cooperation of their partner. The FDA refuses to allow testing of female condom for anal sex because "sodomy" is illegal in many states.
  • Researchers in Europe show that taking Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir®), monotherapy early in the disease has no benefits.
  • The ninth International AIDS Conference is held in Berlin, Germany. Data at the conference shatters hopes that Zidovudine (AZT) and other antivirals are useful as early interventions against AIDS.
  • In June, President Clinton appoints Kristine Gebbie, former nurse and health official for Washington state, as the National AIDS Policy Coordinator.
  • In June, sexual transmission surpasses injection drug use as the cause of HIV infection among women.
  • In June, APLA moves its offices from 6721 Romaine St. and Sunset Blvd. to the former ABC studios, 1313 N. Vine St.
  • Christopher Street West joined APLA to open Casa del Sol, a low-income housing project for people with HIV who were dually diagnosed.
  • In September, HBO premieres And the Band Played On, the film rendition of Randy Shilts' account of the scientific, political and human story of the first five years of AIDS.
  • On October 1, a federal government study concludes that giving clean needles to addicts helps prevent the spread of AIDS.
  • On November 18, APLA hosts the most successful fundraiser to date, Commitment to Life VI, which honors David Geffen, Barbra Streisand and Mayor Tom Bradley. Barbra Streisand gives her first live performance in many years to a sold-out crowd of over 6,000.
  • In December, the movie Philadelphia raises more AIDS awareness. Tom Hanks's performance as a lawyer with AIDS wins an Oscar.
  • AIDS is the leading cause of death for young adults in 64 U.S. cities.
  • Ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev dies of complications from AIDS.
  • AIDS is the leading cause of death for young adults in 64 U.S. cities. 399,250 AIDS cases have been reported in the U.S.; 194,334 are dead.

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1994
  • APLA's San Fernando Valley food pantry opens.
  • On January 7, the FDA approves Bactrim and Septra for a new indication for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
  • Dr. William Paul is named the first permanent director of the Office of AIDS Research.
  • The polyurethane condom for men appears on the market.
  • Benetton runs advertisement depicting President Ronald Reagan with Kaposi's Sarcoma lesions.
  • John Curry, Olympic figure skater, and Randy Shilts, author of And the Band Played On, die from AIDS.
  • Pedro Zamora of MTV's The Real World emerges as the new voice of people with AIDS on television.
  • On February 4, Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala announces the 18 members of the National Task Force on AIDS Drug Development, which includes experts in AIDS drug development issues from academia, industry, medicine, the HIV/AIDS-affected communities and government. The Chairman of the task force is the Assistant Secretary for Health. The FDA provides administrative and managerial support for the task force.
  • The tenth International AIDS Conference ("The Global Challenge of AIDS: Together for the Future") is held in Yokohama.
  • On June 24, Stavudine (d4T, Zerit®) is approved by the FDA for treatment of adults with HIV infection.
  • On August 8, the FDA approves new labeling for Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir®) to include use in preventing vertical transmission of HIV from infected pregnant women to their babies.
  • On December 23, the FDA approves OraSure™, the first non-blood based collection kit utilizing oral fluid for use in the detection of the antibody to HIV-1.
  • Nelson Mandela is elected president in South Africa; however, he fails to address AIDS effectively in public appearances.
  • 441,528 AIDS cases reported in the U.S.; 46,810 deaths in 1994.

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1995
  • In June 1995, Saquinavir (Invirase®), manufactured by Hoffman-LaRoche, is the first protease inhibitor made available outside of ongoing clinical trials.
  • On November 20, the FDA grants accelerated approval for Lamivudine (3TC, Epivir®) for use in combination with Zidovudine (AZT).
  • On December 6, the FDA approves Saquinavir (Invirase®) the first protease inhibitor, for use in combination with other nucleoside analogue medications. This application receives approval only 97 days after FDA receives the application for marketing.
  • Research on young gay/bisexual men indicates that many are becoming infected in a "second wave" of the epidemic.
  • HIV disease becomes the leading cause of death of Americans between 25 and 44 years of age.
  • The White House holds its first conference on HIV/AIDS in Washington, D.C addressing issues introduced by the Policy & Planning and Communications Division.
  • APLA launches the Speak Up program to encourage their clients to vote and become aware of HIV/AIDS issues.
  • Jeff Getty, a person with AIDS, receives a controversial bone marrow transplant from a baboon.
  • The U.S. admits it was Pasteur Institute and not Robert Gallo who discovered the virus that causes AIDS.
  • Olympic diver Greg Louganis reveals that he has AIDS.
  • Rapper Eric “Easy-E” Wright of the group NWA, and author Paul Monett, die of complications from AIDS.
  • 513,486 cases of AIDS reported in U.S.; 43,652 are dead- the first drop in the annual death rate since the beginning of the epidemic.

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1996
  • In January, Earvin "Magic" Johnson, briefly returns to pro basketball and rejoins the Lakers as an active player.
  • In February, heavyweight prizefighter Tommy Morrison is identified as HIV-positive after being tested by the Nevada Boxing Commission prior to a scheduled bout in Las Vegas.
  • On March 1, the FDA grants full approval for Ritonavir (Norvir®) for use alone or in combination with nucleoside analogue medications in people with advanced HIV disease.
  • On March 13, FDA grants accelerated approval for Indinavir (Crixivan®) for use alone or in combination with nucleoside analogue medications in people with HIV or AIDS. The FDA approves the drug in just 42 days after receiving its application for marketing.
  • On May 14, the FDA approves the first HIV home testing system that can be purchased over the counter.
  • On June 21, the FDA grants accelerated approval for Nevirapine (Viramune®).
  • In June, the first test measuring viral load is approved.
  • On August 6, the FDA approves the first HIV test which uses urine samples.
  • The 11th International AIDS Conference ("One World One Hope") is held in Vancouver, Canada. Initial success caused by use of protease inhibitors and combination therapy generates new wave of optimism.
  • Researchers suggest Kaposi's sarcoma is caused by HHV-8, a herpes virus.
  • Time magazine names Dr. David Ho "Man of the Year."
  • APLA progresses new programs including Living Skills, which provides positive activities and training for clients.
  • At the end in 1996, the CDC notices that the trends in AIDS cases alone no longer accurately reflect trends in HIV infection. However it is recognized that these trends can help provide important information about where treatment is needed the most.

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1997
  • APLA's original program, the Hotline, is consolidated with the Northern California HIV/AIDS Hotline to become a state-wide resource. While at APLA, the Hotline handled between 50,000 and 70,000 calls a year.
  • On March 14, the FDA grants accelerated approval for Nelfinavir (Viracept®), the first protease inhibitor labeled for use in both children and adults. It is the fourth approved protease inhibitor.
  • Ritonavir (Norvir®) is approved for use in pediatric offices in March.
  • On April 4, the FDA grants accelerated approval for Delavirdine (Rescriptor®), the second non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI).
  • Chiron's Amplicor viral load testing is approved in June.
  • AIDS deaths drop 19 percent in the United States.
  • The first standardization of anti-HIV guidelines, Report of the NIH Panel to Define Principles of HIV Infection and Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-infected Adults and Adolescents, is published by the CDC.
  • On June 5, APLA honors Gucci's Tom Ford at the annual APLA fashion event. Gucci underwrites the event and it becomes the highest grossing fashion fundraiser in APLA's history, bringing in over $1 million.
  • In June, a grant from L.A. County is awarded to five agencies that provide legal services to people living with HIV/AIDS. These agencies join together to form HALSA (HIV/AIDS Legal Services Alliance).
  • On September 26, the FDA approves Combivir®, a combined form of Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir®) and Lamivudine (3TC, Epivir®), two previously approved antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV-1.

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1998
  • Efavirenz (DMP-266, Sustiva®) is approved by FDA.
  • The XII International AIDS Conference ("Bridging the Gap") is held in Geneva. Reports of lipodystrophy and ongoing impact of HIV on developing world at the conference cloud enthusiasm associated with early successes of combination therapy.
  • On February 4, an analysis of a blood sample preserved since 1959 from the oldest documented case of HIV infection shows that the first such infections probably occurred in people in the late 1940s or early 1950s.
  • On June 4, the FDA authorizes a California company to conduct the world's first full-scale test of a vaccine to prevent HIV.
  • On July 26, the UN issues recommendations intended to discourage women infected with HIV from breast-feeding.
  • On September 17, APLA's Education Division, in conjunction with UCLA and local agencies, releases findings of the first-ever survey on employment needs of those living with HIV/AIDS. The findings illustrate that more people with AIDS are looking at going back to work than in the history of the epidemic.
  • In November, Abacavir (Ziagen®) is approved by FDA.

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1999
  • The first large-scale study of HIV infection among young gay men in New York City finds that large numbers became infected with HIV within the last two years.
  • Agenerase (Amprenavir®), a new protease inhibitor, is approved.
  • T-20, a new class of drug called a fusion inhibitor, goes into clinical trials.
  • The CDC HIV Prevention Conference focuses on leveling off of new AIDS diagnoses, AIDS-related deaths and increased risky behavior among gay men.
  • Activists take on Clinton Administration over compulsory licensing and parallel importing of drugs to the developing world.
  • Scientists announce that ultra-short and inexpensive doses of Nevirapine (Viramune®) reduces perinatal transmission significantly.
  • In December, APLA launches the Los Angeles 1999 Holiday Gift Card campaign and teams with the fastest-growing, globally-branded auction site on the Internet, Yahoo!, to auction unique celebrity artwork.

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2000
  • In July, "Break the Silence" was the theme of the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa. The location of the conference leaves a huge impression on the 12,000 participants who traveled there. It is considered "ground zero" of the epidemic in the year 2000. 5,000 doctors and scientists sign "The Durban Declaration" affirming the overwhelming evidence that HIV causes AIDS.
  • APLA sends three delegates to Durban for the conference. APLA's Director of Education, Lee Klosinski, Ph.D, gives a poster presentation entitled Predictors of Non-adherence to HIV Medications: Implications for Multi-Tiered Interventions (see Archives, Research & Evaluation Core) prepared by Klosinski and Matt Mutchler, Ph.D, based on results from the 1999 APLA Client Survey.
  • In September, the FDA approves Kaletra® (lopinavir & ritonavir), a protease inhibitor.
  • In October, the FDA approves Videx EC®, a once-a-day capsule version of ddI.
  • In November, the FDA approves Trizivir®, a new NRTI which contains 3 drugs in one pill. Combivir®, a combination of AZT and 3TC, has been added to Ziagen® (abacavir) to form Trizivir®.

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2001
  • In April, 2 APLA moves out of its Vine St. office and into new offices at 611 S. Kingsley and 3550 Wilshire Blvd.
  • APLA launches IMPACTO, a Spanish-language health education magazine, and the Positive Wellness and Renewal Program Campaign (POWER) in June 2001, a program funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that provides wellness case management (WCM) and health promotion program (HPP) services to individuals living with HIV/AIDS.
  • Newly appointed U.S. Secretary of State, Colin Powell, reaffirms U.S. statement that HIV/AIDS is a national security threat.
  • On June 1, Nkosi Johnson, a boy who was born with HIV and became an outspoken champion of others infected, died of the disease he battled for all 12 of his years. Former South African President Nelson Mandela called him an "icon of the struggle for life."
  • Two decades into the epidemic, the 189 member nations of the U.N. General Assembly adopted by consensus a global blueprint for action on HIV/AIDS on June 27, 2001. The historic declaration of commitment was the official outcome of the first-ever special session on AIDS at the U.N.
  • On October 26, the FDA approves Viread (tenofovir disproxil fumarate) manufactured by Gilead Sciences for use in combination with other approved retrovirals for the treatment of HIV disease.

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2002
  • The XIV International AIDS Conference (“Knowledge and Commitment for Action”) is held in Barcelona from July 7-12.
  • In 2002, APLA’s second phase of the San Fernando Valley, “Do You Talk About HIV,” campaign is launched.
  • Necessities of Life Program (NOLP) site opens in Long Beach and in South Central Los Angeles allowing HIV/AIDS patients to receive treatment and nutrition education.
  •  APLA broadens its public policy focus to include the U.S response to the global AIDS crisis. Direct services for low-income people living with HIV/AIDS reaches more people across the Los Angeles County that ever before.
  • An HIV-positive Muppet, names Kami, joins Sesame Street, allowing younger generations to learn about AIDS.
  • The U.S National Intelligence Council releases a report pointing out the countries at risk of HIV infection, including Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, China, and Russia.
  • On November 7, the FDA approved a new rapid HIV testing device, OraQuick. The test is easy to use, produces reliable results in 20 minutes, and eliminates the current weeklong waiting periods for test results from more traditional methods. Initial approval requires that OraQuick be administered by certified health care workers.
  • In May, APLA releases Beyond Complacency: A Call For Renewed Leadership in the Third Decade of AIDS, a report that was mailed to elected officials focusing on the latest, most significant issues affecting people living with HIV or AIDS. 
  • The U.S. National Intelligence Council releases a report on the next wave of the epidemic, focused on India, China, Russia, Nigeria, and Ethiopia.

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2003
  • President Bush announces PEPFAR, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, during the State of the Union Address; PEPFAR is a five-year, $15 billion initiative to address HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria primarily in hard hit countries.
  • In June, the FDA announced the approval of Reyataz (atazanavir sulfate), a protease inhibitor to be used in combination with other anti-retroviral agents for the treatment of patients with HIV infection. Approval of this drug permits patients access to a once-a-day protease inhibitor.
  • In July, the FDA announced the approval of Emtriva (FTC, emtricitabine), a new nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) to be used in combination with other anti-retroviral agents for the treatment of patients with HIV infection.
  • On October 15th, the first National Latino AIDS Awareness Day is organized to raise awareness about the threats posed by HIV/AIDS to the Latino community, to encourage prevention and testing and to push for support from public officials and community leaders.
  • On October 20, the FDA approved the protease inhibitor Lexiva™ (generic name fosamprenavir, also called 908).
  • APLA releases a publication called Addressing HIV/AIDS… Latino Perspectives and Policy Recommendations at Capitol Hill along with the Kaiser Family Foundation, which provides recommendations to state and local AIDS directors and other health department officials as they respond to the alarming HIV/AIDS epidemics in the Latino communities.
  • APLA launches the HIVisionaries campaign, which was developed with the help of gay men in the San Fernando Valley in order to encourage honest conversation about their sexual orientation, and a website for Gay Men’s Mental Health and HIV Risk.
  • APLA’s education division produced many nationally recognized publications including, Changing How We Think: Prevention Policy in the US.
  • APLA launches The Red Circle Project, a program targeting Native American gay, bisexual, and transgender men and women. In the winter, APLA’s online advocacy network, In the Loop, launches numerous advocacy campaigns thereby generating almost 6,700 e-mails and faxes to elected officials regarding pertinent HIV/AIDS issues.
  • APLA celebrates its 20-year anniversary as an AIDS Service Organization (ASO) with a gala event at the home of board member Ron Burkle, honoring 20 individual and community heroes. 
  • APLA’s Institutional Review Board is approved by the U.S. Department of Health, allowing APLA to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects.

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2004
  • On March 26, the FDA approves OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test. The rapid HIV diagnostic test kit correctly identified 99.3 percent of specimens from infected people (sensitivity) and 99.8 percent of specimens from uninfected people (specificity) in limited studies provided by the manufacturer in support of this approval. The test provides results in approximately 20 minutes.
  • On August 2, the FDA announces approval of two fixed-dose combination (FDC) antiretroviral drug products for use with other antiretroviral agents.
  • On August 3, the FDA announces approval of Sculptra, an injectable filler to correct facial fat loss in people with HIV.
  • President Bush's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, PEPFAR, begins first round of funding.
  • The 15th International AIDS Conference (“Access for All”) is held in Bangkok, Thailand.
  •  On March 25th, APLA launches a mobile clinic to commemorate 20 years of dental services.
  • The Residential Services Program is one of several programs in three U.S. cities asked to participate in Connections, a study funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to determine the impact of homelessness on the health and prevention skills of people living with HIV/AIDS.
  • Executive Craig E. Thompson is elected Chair of the Board of the Washington, DC-based AIDS Action Council.
  • APLA is funded by the CDC to produce LINKS, an HIV prevention program utilizing mental health counseling in order to promote the adoption and maintenance of risk reduction behaviors for HIV transmission in HIV-positive men.

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2005
  • The World Health Organization, UNAIDS, the United States Government, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria announce results of joint efforts to increase the availability of antiretroviral drugs in developing countries.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration grants tentative approval for generic AIDS drug regimens to be purchased under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This marks the first ever approval of an HIV drug regimen manufactured by a non-U.S.-based generic pharmaceutical company under FDA's new expedited review process.
  • The CDC announces at the 2005 National HIV Prevention Conference in Atlanta in June that HIV infections in the U.S. have reached 1 million.
  • On June 22, 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) grants accelerated approval of APTIVUS (tipranavir), a protease inhibitor.
  • APLA launches the APLA/YRG CARE Women's Project to help with HIV/AIDS prevention in India, a publication called In the Meantime, and finally the Crystal Program which helps drug users who have or are at risk of being infected with AIDS.

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2006
  • President Bush’s proposal for a U.S budget for the first time in six years that includes domestic HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention that would provide more than $180 million in new funding for other programs.
  • Atripla is marketed by two companies: Bristol-Myers Squibb and Gilead Sciences. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 2006.
  • APLA helps launch "Helping Each Other Prevent HIV," an HIV prevention campaign.

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